1 thought on “Gold basic knowledge introduction”

  1. Directory:
    1. What is gold and what are its characteristics?
    2. The concept of gold
    3. The basic attributes of gold and their common sense
    4. The type of gold
    5. n What are the characteristics of gold and what are its characteristics?
    Gold is a precious metal with yellow luster. English is GOLD. At the same time, gold has long been a special currency commodity and appeared in human society.
    , as a precious metal, gold has a much better characteristic than other metals. The physical characteristics of gold are:
    (1), high melting point. Its melting point is as high as thousands of degrees, far higher than other copper and iron. "Real gold is not afraid of fire," it means that gold is not easy to melt under the general flame, and always maintains its original face. The melting point of the gold is 1063 ° C, and the boiling point is 2808 ° C. After that, gold can vaporize and volatilize.
    (2), large density. The density of gold is/cm 3, and a small piece is placed in my hand, and I feel heavy.
    (3), good toughness and ductility. Gold can be made into extremely thin gold foil and extremely fine gold silk. Under modern processing conditions, pure gold can be processed into millimeter gold foil. Usually, 1 gram of gold can be pulled into 320 meters long. Various patterns woven with gold and silk threads are the so -called "weaving gold" and "embroidery gold".
    (4) Gold is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and its conduction is second only to platinum, mercury, lead and silver.
    (5), Jin has a pleasant luster. Gold is the yellowest in all metals. Gold containing impurities and gold alloy containing other elements change a lot. For example, gold and copper alloy is red, and the silver contains gold from pale yellow to light green or gray white.
    (6) and gold can be easily worn and become extremely fine powder. This is why gold is widely distributed in nature in nature. Pure gold jewelry will reduce the weight and cause irreparable losses throughout the year. Therefore, general gold jewelry and gold coins should be added with a small amount of silver and copper to improve the hardness and make it gloss.
    is worth mentioning that gold and silver alloy is essentially different from natural gold containing silver and copper impurities. The former is a solid solid after the golden melting, with a homogeneous structure inside, and the natural gold hat is precipitated from the aqueous solution, and the internal structure is uneven.
    The chemical properties of gold are relatively stable. Except for several elements such as tadpoles, selenium, and chlorine, it is not prone to chemical reactions and other elements and other elements to generate compounds under normal conditions. This properties make gold exposed to the air for a long time and change its color and glory. The common pseudo -gold is alloys of copper, zinc, sulfur, etc., which are similar to the appearance of the gold in the new time. Oxidation will be revealed after a long time.
    but gold is also easily corroded by a chemical substance, such as golden soluble in the king water (hydrochloric acid and nitric acid 3: 1 mixture). In addition, wet chlorine, chlorine, bromine, potassium iodide, iodine solution, potassium cyanide, sodium sodium sulfide, etc. have serious corrosion power.
    , as a special currency product, gold can be regarded as a widely used product, circulating in society, which is the result of its excellent natural characteristics. At the same time, gold is a currency product, of course, of course, of course, of course, of course, of course It also reflects the characteristics of the tendency, such as value scale, circulation means, payment methods, storage means, etc., so it has a symbol of wealth in the long run. This attribute is also due to the continuous reflection of its natural attributes in social life. For example, rare, high mining costs, small volume, and large internal value, etc., in long -term social life practice, people are constantly being recognized and accepted by people. As a result, gold has the characteristics of social attributes that are different from other metal goods.
    The concept of gold
    gold, also known as gold, chemical element symbol is AU, which is a yellow -luster metal. Gold has good physical attributes, stable chemical properties, high ductility and scarce quantity. It is not only for special currency for reserves and investment, but also the jewelry, electronics industry, modern communication, aerospace and air industry, etc. Important materials of the department. Before the 1970s, it was still the world currency, and it still occupied a place in the international reserves of various countries. It is a special product with currency attributes, commodity attributes and financial attributes at the same time.
    The use of gold is: national currency reserve, personal asset investment and value preservation tools, special materials for beautifying life, industry and medical raw materials.
    Golden derivative tools. With the gradual maturity of collection, the gold market is expected to gradually grow golden long -term, gold futures, and even gold options.
    The basic attributes of gold and its common sense
    Gold are a kind of precious metal with currency, finance and commodity attributes. It is known as the "king of metal" and was once a symbol of wealth and luxury. With the development of society, the economic status and commodity applications of gold are constantly changing. Its financial reserves and monetary functions are adjusting, and the functions of commodity functions are returning. The applications of gold in the fields of financial reserves, currencies, jewelry and other fields still account for the main position. Affected by factors such as US dollars and crude oil prices, gold prices, international gold prices and international gold prices continue to rise, making gold investment a popular phenomenon. Essence
    . The natural attributes of gold
    Gold, also known as gold, chemical symbol AU, atomic order 79, atomic quantity 197, 22 known parts, mass number 183-204. The melting point of gold is 1063 ° C, and the boiling point is 2808 ° C. The density of gold is large, at 20 ° C, it is gram/cm.
    The softness of gold is good, easy to forge and extension. The current technology can crush gold into a thin film; pulling gold into fine wires, one gram of gold can be pulled into a long, diameter of millimeter filament. The hardness of gold is low, and the hardness of the minerals is golden jewelry. The hardness of gold jewelry is only gold. Gold is an anti -magnet, but the golden magnetization rate of manganese contains a high golden magnetization rate, and the gold containing a large amount of iron, nickel, and cobalt is a strong magnet.
    The gold reflection performance in infrared areas has the performance of high reflection and low radiation. The alloy containing other elements in the gold can change the wavelength, that is, change the color. Gold has the characteristics of low crystallization temperature.
    Gold has excellent anti -chemical corrosion and color resistance. The chemical stability of gold is extremely high, and it is extremely stable in alkali and various acids. It is not oxidized in the air and does not change color. Instead of gold in hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, it is obviously insoluble. Oxygen does not affect its high temperature characteristics. It does not melt, oxidation, color, or loss at 1000 ° C at high temperature. This is the most significant difference between gold and all other metals.
    This can be dissolved in the mixture of Wang Shui (3: 1 of the king water is a mixture of 3: 1 of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid), a mixture of hydrochloric acid and chromic acid, and a mixture of sulfuric acid and mangantic acid, and can also be dissolved in cyanocyan In the solution of chemical salt.
    The compounds of gold are easily restored to metal. Hydrogen and potentials at high temperatures, before gold, metals before gold, and hydrogen peroxide, dichloride, iron sulfate, manganese dioxide, etc. can be used as reducing agents. The most powerful metal is magnesium, zinc, iron, and aluminum. At the same time, some organic matter can be used to restore gold, such as methic acid and oxalic acid.
    . The financial and commodity attributes of gold
    Golds are different from ordinary goods. Since being discovered by humans, it has the entire history of currency, finance and commodity attributes, and always runs through the development of human society. Different role and influence at different historical stages are different from the product attributes.
    Golden is a metal discovered and used earlier. Due to its rareness, special and precious, it has been regarded as the first of hardware since ancient times. It has the title of "King of Metals" and enjoys the reputation that other metals cannot compare. Because gold has such a status, it was a symbol of wealth and luxury for a period of time, which was used for financial reserves, currencies, jewelry, etc. With the development of society, the economic status and commodity applications of gold are constantly changing. Its financial reserves and monetary functions are adjusting, and commodity functions are returning. With the rapid development of modern industry and high -tech, the application of gold in these fields has gradually expanded. So far, the application of gold in the fields of financial reserves, currency, jewelry and other fields still accounts for the main position.
    . The main purpose of gold
    (1) International reserves
    This is determined by the currency attribute of gold. Due to the excellent characteristics of gold, gold is the function of gold as currency, such as value scale, circulation means, storage means, payment methods, and world currencies. With the development of socio -economic development, gold has withdrawn from circulation. After the decoupling of gold and the US dollar in the 1970s, the monetary function of gold has also weakened, but still maintains a certain monetary function. In many countries, including international reserves in major Western countries, gold still occupy a very important position.
    (2) Jewelry decoration
    Green gold jewelry has always been a symbol of social status and wealth. With the development of modern industry and high -tech, the scope and style of jewelry, accessories, ornaments made with gold continues to expand and deepen. With the continuous improvement of people's income and the increasing wealth, the continuous improvement of value preservation and decentralized investment awareness has also promoted the increase in demand in this regard year by year.
    (3) Industry and high -tech industries
    I due to the materialized properties unique to gold: have the stability of extremely high resistance to corrosion; Cross -section; the reflection capacity of infrared rays is close to 100%; it has various touch -media properties in the alloy of gold; it is also good for processing into ultra -thin gold foil, micron gold silk and gold powder, which can be easily placed to other metals, it is easy to be plated to other metals, it is easy to be plated to other metals, it is easy The surface of pottery and glass; under a certain pressure, gold is easily welded and forged; it can be made into superconductors and organic gold, which can be widely used in industry and modern high -tech industries, such as electronics, communication, space, chemical industry , Medical and other fields.
    The types of gold
    Golds are natural products that exist in a free state in nature. According to the different sources and the different contents of the content, the content of raw gold and cooked gold.
    This gold, also known as natural gold, waste gold, and original gold. It is the object of cooked gold. It is a gold that has not been melted and refined from the mining or river base layer. Born gold is divided into two types: mineral gold and sand gold.
    Mine gold, also known as alleged gold, produced in mines and gold mines. Most of them are hot springs that are pouring underground through the sewing of the rocks. They are often sandwiched in the gap between the rocks. Mine gold is mostly accompanied by other metals. Among them, in addition to gold, there are other metals such as silver, platinum, and zinc. Before other metals were proposed, it was called a precursor.
    The sand gold is produced at the bottom of the river or a low -lying area, mixed with stone sand, and washed out of the gold. Sand gold originated in the mine, because the gold ore was exposed to the ground. After a long wind and rain, the rocks collapsed through weathering. Deposition is a gold -containing layer to form sand gold.
    Matonous gold is the gold that has been smelted and purified by the gold. Generally, the purity is higher and the density is fine. Some can be directly used in industrial production. Common gold bars, gold blocks, gold ingots, and various jewelry, utensils, gold coins, and industrial gold silk, gold, gold boards, etc.
    Mathery is used to divide mature golds into three types: pure gold, red gold, and color gold according to the high and low.
    The gold that achieves a very high purity after being purified is called pure gold, which generally refers to gold that reaches the above color.
    The meaning of red gold and pure gold is close, but due to the different time and local standards, the standards of Chijin are different. The gold sold in the international market is called Chijin. The red gold in the territory is generally between.
    It color gold, also known as "secondary gold" and "tide gold", refers to the low color. Due to the different metal content of these gold, the high color is 99%high, and only 30%of the low.
    The is divided by different metals, cooked gold can be divided into color gold, mixed gold, K gold, etc. The color gold refers to gold only mixed with silver components, regardless of whether it is high or low. There are more color gold, commonly in gold bars, gold ingots, gold blocks and various utensils and gold jewelry.
    The mixed gold refers to the in addition to the silver in the gold, but also contains other metals such as copper, zinc, lead, and iron. Depending on the type and quantity of the metal contained in, it can be divided into small
    mi, mixed gold, large mixed gold, bronze mixed gold, and lead -containing large mixed gold.
    k gold refers to gold and copper according to a certain proportion, and the gold is prepared according to the formula of 24K. Generally speaking, the more the proportion of k gold is silver, the more the color is
    ; the copper -containing ratio is large, the color is purple. In the early days of liberation, the K gold in my country was calculated at each standard. After 1982, it has been unified with international standards
    for each K as the standard.
    The main needs and use of gold
    With the development of society, the economic status and application of gold are constantly changing. Its monetary functions are declining, and the application of industrial and high -tech fields is gradually expanding.
    The main needs and uses of gold are three categories:
    (1), used as international reserves. This is determined by the gold currency product attributes. Due to the excellent characteristics of gold, the function of gold as currency in history, such as value scale, circulation means, storage methods, payment methods and world currencies. With the development of socio -economic development, gold has withdrawn from circulation. After the decoupling of gold and the US dollar since the 1970s, the monetary functions of gold have also weakened, but they still maintain a certain monetary function. In many countries, including international reserves in major Western countries, gold still occupy a very important position.
    (2), used as jewelry decoration. Gorgeous gold jewelry has always been a symbol of a person's social status and wealth.
    (3) Application in industrial and scientific and technological. Gold has extremely high corrosion stability; good conductivity and thermal conductivity; the atomic nucleus of the gold has a large capture of the effective section of the neutron; the reflection capacity of infrared rays is close to 100%; Nature; gold also has good craftsmanship, which is easily processed into ultra -thin gold foil, micron gold silk and gold powder. Because of so many beneficial properties that it has reasons to widely use the most needed modern high -tech industries, such as electronic technology, communication technology, astronomical technology, chemical technology, medical technology, etc.
    1. Application of Gold in the instrument and instrument manufacturing industry
    With the development of science and technology, the requirements for various instruments are also getting higher and higher. Gold's application on various precision automation instruments has also increasingly possess important amounts.
    The widespread use of pulse transformation and angular displacement in industrial measurement and control equipment. The potential measurement occupies an important position. The potential quality is the decisive factor in the measurement of the working accuracy of the measurement control system. For this reason, this device is often required to work for a long time at different temperatures of various industrial atmosphere. This is the reason why gold or alloy is used as a key material for precision potential.
    The materials applied in the test technology have a high ratio resistance and small resistance temperature coefficient that is small to zero. To. Gold -合 — chromium alloy, gold -钯 — manganese alloy, gold — 钯 — 钒 金 金, gold -钯 — iron alloy can meet the above requirements, and the mechanical properties and thermal stability of processing have achieved good s level.
    The industrial measurement temperature often uses thermocouple and resistance thermometer. The thermocouple is composed of two different metal wires. Due to the temperature difference between the cold end of the measuring point, the thermal power that can be measured by the millions is measured. The thermal stability requirements of materials are strict. rn2、金在电子工业中的应用rn众所周知,现代各项科学技术的发展都离不开电子工业,而且还占有重要地位,如电子信息、航空航天、仪表仪器、计算机、 Radio, TV, integrated circuits, etc. are all the result of the development of the electronic industry, and the application of the electronic industry and gold and other precious metals are inseparable. The stability, conductivity, toughness, ductility, etc. of the electronic component, gold and its alloy can almost meet the requirements. Therefore, the amount of gold in the electronics industry accounts for more than 90%of the industrial gold, and the amount of dosage increases annually.
    3, the application of gold on the electrical contact material
    It in modern communication systems, control systems, and electronic computer systems, although its structure is compact and the device is miniaturized, the possibility of the necessary inspection should still be guaranteed Essence Individual parts and component demolition structures are adopted in this regard, which is technically reasonable. To put forward higher requirements for reliability and service life, the necessity and importance of studying new types of contacts naturally put forward the need to study new contacts. Due to increasing energy reserves of compact parts and energy reserves of the unit volume, the effectiveness of the system in the communication system should consider some factors related to the surrounding environment when developing contact materials, such as excellent conductivity, stable resistance, and excellent ones. Cortency resistance, processability, thermal stability, etc. Because the alloy of gold and gold has the above -mentioned excellent nature, it is widely used in the production of electricity contacts.
    Due to the plating, high plasticity and good processing performance of gold and gold alloy, it can be used to make various types of different types and different uses of calls such as suppression, plating, packaging, and electrical still accumulation, such as gold with gold, such as gold with gold, such as gold. — Platinum, gold -copper, gold -silver — 铟 铟 铟 铟 — — use contact and slide contact; use gold -镓 镓 telephone relay contacts, wear resistance and can ensure the transmission of signals High -strength, corrosion -resistant electrical contacts; high elastic contacts with gold -copper -钯 钯; tongue tunnels (tongue scret tubes) made widely used in ferromagnetic alloy;高) Can significantly improve the mechanical properties of gold. This material is heat -resistant, antioxidant, and has strong mechanical properties. It can be used to make contact with industrial relay at high temperature. Rong contact.
    4, the application of gold on the conductive material
    gold silk, gold foil, components suppressed by gold powder, gold alloy, gold -packed alloy materials (such as gold glass, golden ceramics, golden quartz) Wait for conductive materials for conductive equipment, semiconductor equipment and miniature circuits as conductive materials. Such as the production of semiconductor integrated circuits, the semiconductor integrated circuit lead framework is made of a high -speed punching material with a leading frame material. The qualified lead frame is cleaned, local gold plating (the thickness of the gold plating layer is not less than 1 micrometer), the chip is loaded, the key combined The semiconductor integrated circuits can be made into a semiconductor integrated circuit. Gold and gold alloy are used in the electronics industry as the internal and external leads, such as the alloy alloy wire (based on GB/T8750-1997).
    5. The application of gold on the gold base n Gold -based welded has many valuable properties, just because the price of gold is expensive, it limits a large number of applications in its industry. With the development of the development of new structural materials such as electronic industry, vacuum technology, atomic energy device, aircraft and rockets, and aerospace devices, the scope of application of gold -based solder welds has become wider.
    The nature of gold base solder is mainly humid performance, welding strength, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, sputtering and process performance.
    6, the application of gold on the electronic slurry
    1960 The integrated circuit to develop the circuit exhibition is very fast. In 1967 and 1977, large -scale integrated circuits and large -scale integrated circuits came out. Integrated circuits have not only become the foundation of various advanced technologies. It is also a key technology for modern information society. Its development has led to a large -scale monthly month in the microelectronics industry, making precious metal electronic slurry an important foundation for the microelectronics industry Essence
    7, the application of Jin in the word airline
    The application of gold in the astronal industry is also constantly developing and developing, and its speed is surprising. Gold has an important position in the field of the astronal with its anti -corruption, heat resistance, excellent thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity.
    The large application volume and extensive range of gold in the astronal industry. From the manufacturing of spacecraft, carrier tools to the system control of Aerospace, etc., all aspects of information, measurement, remote sensing, positioning, computer, photography, instrumentation, etc. Special materials cannot be separated from gold.
    I Gold is used to prevent the sun from radiation from various cosmic meters. "Apollo" — The equipment of the spacecraft and the equipment of the cosmic pilots is also plated for this purpose. Because gold has a special performance of high reflectivity and low radiation, gold is often used to prevent ranging occasions, such as jet generator oil mouths, cosmic device fuel parts and thermal reflectors. Gold is also used in jet engines and rockets to launch parts to apply gold anti -hot cover or hot cover. A US company has developed a method of spraying gold plating on the aircraft engine shell. The thickness of the spray layer does not exceed micron, which greatly improves the performance of this engine. Anti -radiation, high temperature resistance, and non -corrosive golden platinum alloy is used for jet engines, rockets, and supersonic aircraft engines.

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